Health systems in some Caribbean countries overwhelmed

WASHINGTON, DC, United States (CMC)– Director of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Dr Carissa F Etienne has warned that health systems in the Americas, including some Caribbean countries, are overwhelmed amid the novel coronavirus pandemic, and she has urged nations with extra vaccines to donate them to the region.

“Hospitalisations are at an all-time high in Costa Rica, and we expect more patients will require care as the country reported a 50 per cent jump in cases in the last week,” Dr Etienne told reporters at her weekly media briefing on Wednesday.

“Guatemala’s hospitals have also reached maximum capacity,” she said, adding that, at hospitals in Colombia, “ICU beds are running out in major metropolitan cities like Bogota and Medellin”.

Dr Etienne said that vaccine “supplies still languish behind our urgent need for more doses. That’s why we urge countries with extra doses to consider donating a significant portion of these to the Americas, where these life-saving doses are desperately needed and will be promptly used,” she said.

The PAHO director said the crowding of hospitals crisis is due partly to the increase in hospitalisation of younger COVID-19 patients, who are less frequently vaccinated and more often exposed.

She said they tend to be hospitalised for longer periods and, therefore, use up more resources.

“PAHO is orienting our countries to plan on coping with sudden increases in the consumption of critical inputs such as oxygen, intubation drugs, personal protective equipment and infusion pumps,” Dr Etienne said.

Along with hospitalisations, infections are sharply rising throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, she said, stating that cases are increasing in Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Uruguay.

Dr Etienne said infections are climbing toward January levels in Colombia, and rising in nearly every Central American country.

In the Caribbean, she said Guadeloupe, Martinique and The Bahamas are reporting surging infections.

“Anguilla reported more than 60 per cent of its total cases in the last seven days, and weekly cases doubled in Puerto Rico during the same period,” Dr Etienne said. “It’s no surprise then that many countries in our region have tightened public health measures by extending curfews, limiting reopenings, and imposing new stay-at-home orders.

“These decisions are never easy; but, based on how infections are surging, this is exactly what needs to happen,” she added. “We know these measures work, and I commend leaders across our region for putting health first.”

In total, Dr Etienne said 1.4 million new COVID-19 cases were reported in the Americas in the past week, while 36,000 people died of the disease.

“In fact, one in four COVID deaths reported worldwide last week took place right here in the Americas,” she said.

Dr Etienne, meanwhile, gave Latin America and Caribbean countries high marks for their distribution of the limited vaccine doses that have been available.

“Most countries have done a great job following WHO [World Health Organization] and PAHO recommendations for prioritising early doses for health workers and others on the front lines, and saving thousands of lives by protecting the elderly and people with underlying conditions,” she said, stating that many countries have invested in cold chains for vaccines requiring ultra-low temperatures.

“As deliveries pick up pace, our cold chain and supply chains will be tested further, but they are ready for the challenge,” she added.

Dr Etienne said countries have also safeguarded their populations by locating COVID-19 vaccine sites away from clinics and hospitals.

She said they have also organised drive-thru vaccination and door-to-door campaigns to reduce the chance of transmission.

“Thanks to these efforts, our region has administered nearly every COVAX [COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access] dose it has received thus far,” Dr Etienne said. “Our region has demonstrated that it can successfully distribute COVID vaccines quickly and effectively.”

She said about 317 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered in the Americas, with more than 70 per cent distributed in the United States.

Dr Etienne said Latin America and Caribbean nations have received nearly seven million doses in the first allotment procured through COVAX, the global partnership to ensure equitable distribution of vaccines.

More COVAX-procured doses are expected to arrive in May and June, she said.

“In the next few weeks, countries will receive their second COVAX shipments,” Dr Etienne said. “And while doses remain limited, most countries will see a considerable increase in doses from the first wave.”

She warned that while the region grapples with COVID-19, routine immunisation against other vaccine-preventable diseases has lagged.

Last year, the PAHO director said, nearly 500,000 children missed vaccinations for diseases like diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.

More than 300,000 missed their measles vaccinations, she said, pointing out that decline in immunisation is not only due to the pandemic.

“These trends aren’t new,” Dr Etienne said. “For some years, we’ve seen immunisation coverage decline in our region.”

She urged people to keep up with routine vaccinations, and congratulated health workers, who are expected to vaccinate almost 100 million people against diseases, such as measles, influenza and human papillomavirus, during this year’s April 24-30 Vaccination Week in the Americas.

Health workers are expected to administer nearly nine million doses of COVID-19 vaccines during the week, she said.

“Our health workers have made extraordinary personal sacrifices and persevered even under the most challenging circumstances,” Dr Etienne said. “We owe it to them to do everything we can to keep ourselves and our communities safe – including by getting vaccinated when it’s your turn.”

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